Reyes-Paecke, S. (2019).
Urban wildlife refers to all native animals seeking food and shelter in urban and suburban areas, including birds, mammals, reptiles, arthropods, amphibians, fish, and aquatic invertebrates, but excluding domestic and exotic animals. Urban wildlife presents behavioral changes in feeding, nesting, and shelter with respect to wild populations, and its abundance and diversity are favored by tree cover, vegetation diversity, and native vegetation cover. Urban wildlife is classified as urban exploiters, urban adaptors, and urban avoiders: urban exploiters use anthropogenic resources for food and shelter, reaching large densities in city centers, urban adaptors can use some anthropogenic resources and have been more abundant in suburbs and residential areas, while urban avoiders are restricted to urban fringes. Urban wildlife also provides ecosystem services (e.g., pollination, pest control), but can be a source of conflicts with humans because some species can be seen as a nuisance for property or people.
Reyes-Paecke, S. (2019) Urban Wildlife. In: A. Orum (Editor). The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Urban and Regional Studies. Wiley & Sons Ltd.Online ISBN: 9781118568446. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118568446.eurs0404